Climate Governance Experiments–Project Description
The global response to climate change has reached a critical juncture. Since the 1992 signing of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the nations of the world have attempted to address climate change through large-scale multilateral treaty-making. These efforts have been heroic, but disappointing. As evidence for the quickening pace of climate change mounts the treaty-making process has sputtered, and many are now skeptical about the prospect of an effective global response. Yet global treaty-making is not the only way that climate change can be addressed or, indeed, is being addressed. In the last decade myriad initiatives have emerged across the globe independently from, or only loosely connected to, the “official” UN-sponsored negotiations and treaties. In the face of stalemate in the formal negotiations, the world is experimenting with alternate means of responding to climate change. Climate Governance at the Crossroads chronicles these innovations–how cities, provinces and states, citizen groups, and corporations around the globe are addressing the causes and symptoms of global warming. The center of gravity in the global response to climate change is shifting from the multilateral treaty-making process to the diverse activities found beyond the negotiating halls. These innovations are pushing the envelope of climate action and demonstrating what is possible and they provide hope that the world will respond effectively to the climate crisis.
April 2013: Next steps for Experiments Project: Pathways to Decarbonization
Along with colleagues in Toronto, Ottawa, the US, UK, and Sweden, I was awarded a five year Social Science and Humanities Research Council grant for the project “Transformative Policy Pathways Towards Decarbonization”
March 2012: Climate Governance at the Crossroads was the runner up for the Sprout Award–best book in Environmental Studies from the International Studies Association.
February 2011: My book is the first major publication from this project:
Matthew J. Hoffmann. 2011. Climate Governance at the Crossroads: Experimenting with a Global Response after Kyoto Oxford University Press.
See the Oxford University Press Website for details.
Update January 2010: The first working paper from the project was recently presented at the Amsterdam Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change. A PDF of this paper can be downloaded here.
Identifying Climate Governance Experiments:
A climate experiment is a governance initiative that meets these three criteria:
1. Experiments are independent from the Kyoto process or national regulatory measures. Initiatives that are designed to aid states in meeting Kyoto goals or national regulations are not experiments.
2. Experiments are engaged in making rules that shape how communities respond to climate change. Initiatives and actors that are primarily engaged in lobbying, for instance, are not experiments.
3. Experiments must cross jurisdictional boundaries. Many cities have climate policies, but individually these do not count as global governance experiments (relaxing this criteria would increase the number of experiments one thousand fold). Programs like the Cities for Climate Protection which link and network cities are experiments.
See the table below for the experiments currently in my database and feel free to make suggestions for possible additions!
|Name||Initiated||Projects/Activities||Academic Studies(under construction)
|American College & University Presidents Climate Commitment (ACUPCC)||2007||June 2008–Over 500 University Presidents have joined the initiative||None|
|Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (APP)||2005||May 2008–5th Ministerial Meeting in Seattle Washington||Kellow 2006|
|Business Council on Climate Change (BC3)||2007||Initiative of UN Global Compact, City of San Francisco and Local Companies||None|
|C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group||2005||Energy Efficiency Building Retrofit Program (Four Multinational Corporations, Five Global Banks, and Fifteen Cities)||None|
|California Climate Action Registry (CCAR)||2001||Carbon Emissions Registry||None|
|Carbon Disclosure Project||2000||The largest repository of corporate greenhouse gas emissions data in the world. Over 3000 participating companies in 2008||None|
|Carbon Rationing Action Groups||2005||CRAGs operating in UK, US, and Canada||Hoffmann 2008|
|CarbonFix||2007||Offsetting Standard Setter||None|
|Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX)||2003||Private Emissions Trading||None|
|Climate Alliance of European Cities with Indigeouns Rainforest Peoples||1990||European Municipalities Initiative||None|
|Climate Neutral Network||2008||Information and networking initiative||None|
|Climate Savers||1999||Joint venture between WWF and various multinationals||None|
|Climate Wise||2007||Insurance industry initiative||None|
|Clinton Climate Initiative||2006||Support for C40 program and technological development initiative||None|
|Community Carbon Reduction Project (CRed)||2003||What originally started out as a community initiaitive to reduce GHG emissions has since evolved to act as a network-based catalysts for community-led carbon reduction projects||None|
|Conference of New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers Climate Change Action Plan (CNEG/ECP)||2001||Networking amongst US states and Canadian Provinces||None|
|Connected Urban Development Programme||2006||Partnership between Cisco and US cities||None|
|Cool Counties Climate Stabilization Initiative||2007||Joint initiative of Sierra Club and US counties||None|
|Covenant of Mayors (Europe)||2008||European municipalities initiative sponsored by European Commission||None|
|e8 Network of Expertise for the Global Environment||1992||Network of largest electricity companies in the G-8||None|
|Edenbee||2008||Social Network Designed to reduce individual carbon footprints||None|
|Environmental Resources Trust GHG Registry Program||1997||Registry and private market for VERs||None|
|European Federation of Regional Energy and Environment Agencies (FEDARENE)||1990||Regional Network||None|
|Evangelical Climate Initiative||2006||Network of religious leaders||None|
|Global GHG Register (GHGR)||2004||Corporate emissions registry||None|
|ICLEI Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) Campaign||1993||Municipal network||Betsill and Bulkeley 2004|
|International Leadership Alliance for Climate Stabilization (ILA)||2006||Public-Private Partnership in South||None|
|Investor Network on Climate Risk||2003||Network of institutional investors||None|
|Major Economies Meetings on Energy Security and Climate Change (a.k.a. Major Emitters Conference)||2007||Multilateral initiative of G-20||None|
|MOU b/w The State of Victoria and The State of California for Collaboration on Climate Change Action||2007||US and Australian states bilateral agreement||None|
|Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord||2007||Emissions trading initiative||None|
|National Association of Counties (NACo) County Climate Protection Progra||2007||Information and networking tool for US counties||None|
|Network of Regional Governments for Sustainable Development (nrg4SD)||2002||Regional network||None|
|Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI)||2005||Emissions Trading initiative||None|
|Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP)||2004||NGO networking initiative||None|
|SlimCity Initiative||2008||City-Private sector initiative||None|
|Southwest Climate Change Initiative||2006||Arizona-New Mexico networking agreement||None|
|The Climate Group||2004||Corporate standard-setting initiative||None|
|The Climate Registry||2007||North American emissions registry project||None|
|Transition Towns||2005||Municipal initiative||None|
|U.S. Mayors Climate Protection Agreement||2005||Municipal initiative||None|
|West Coast Governors’ Global Warming Initiative||2004||Network between California, Oregon, and Washington||None|
|Western Climate Initiative||2007||Emissions Trading initiative||None|
|World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)||1990||Corporate networking initiative||None|